Relativitistic Effects In Valence Electrons?

If we assume the valence electrons occupy orbitals corresponding to the excited states of hydrogen (

The first involves wave-particle duality. Either the motion complies with wave properties or it does not, and the two-slit experiment is fairly good evidence that it does. Now a wave consistent with the Schrödinger equation can have only one frequency, hence only one overall energy. If a wave had two frequencies, it would self-interfere, or at the very least would not comply with the Schrödinger equation, and hence you could not claim to be using standard quantum mechanics. Relativistic effects must be consistent with the expectation energy of the particle, and should be negligible for any valence electron.

The second relates to how the relativistic effects are calculated. This involves taking small regions of space and assigning relativistic velocities to them. That means we are assigning specific momentum enhancements to specific regions of space, and surely that violates the Uncertainty Principle. The Uncertainty Principle argues the uncertainty of the position multiplied by the uncertainty of the momentum is greater or equal to the quantum of action. In fact it may be worse than that, because when we have stationary states with

On a more personal note, I am annoyed because I have published an alternative explanation [

The first is, if we consider the energies of the ground states of atoms in a column of elements, my theory predicts the energies quite well at each end of a row, but for elements nearer the centre, there are more discrepancies, and they alternate in sign, depending on whether n is odd or even. The series copper, silver and gold probably show the same effect, but more strongly. The “probably" is because we need a fourth member to be sure. However, the principle remains: taking two points and extrapolating to a third is invalid unless you can prove the points should lie on a known line. If there are alternating differences, then the method is invalid. Further, within this theory, gold is the element that agrees with theory the best. That does not prove the absence of relativistic effects, but at least it casts suspicion.

The second depends on calculations of the excited states. For gold, the theory predicts the outcomes rather well, especially for the d states, which involve the colour problem. Note that copper is also coloured. (I shall post a figure from the paper later. I thought I had better get agreement on copyright before I start posting it, and as yet I have had no response. The whole paper should be available as a free download, though.) The function is not exact, and for gold the p states are more the villains, and it is obvious that something is not quite right, or, as I believe, has been left out. However, the point I would make is the theoretical function depends only on quantum numbers, it has no empirical validation procedures and depends only on the nodal structure of the waves. The only interaction included is the electron nucleus electric field so some discrepancies might be anticipated. Now, obviously you should not take my word either, but when somebody else produces an alternative explanation, in my opinion we should at least acknowledge its presence rather than simply ignore it.

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