Current Available Antiviral Agents

Current Available Antiviral Agents

Posted by Valerie Walters on Jul 4, 2020 2:54 pm

Antiviral agents are drugs that inhibit the spread of virus, for example by preventing replication of the genome, blocking entry to host cells, or inhibiting viral protein synthesis or viral assembly. The antiviral agents are a large and diverse group of agents that are typically classified by the virus infections for which they are used, their chemical structure and their mode of action.

Unlike other antimicrobials, antiviral drugs do not deactivate or destroy the microbe (in this case, the virus) but act by inhibiting replication. In this way, they prevent the viral load from increasing to a point where it could cause pathogenesis, allowing the body's innate immune mechanisms to neutralize the virus.

Currently, antiviral therapy is available only for a limited number of infections. Only a few antiviral drugs are reasonably safe and effective against a limited number of viral diseases, and most of these have been developed in people. Most antiviral agents have been developed in the last 20 to 25 years, many as a result of the major research efforts to develop therapies and means of prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

The development of antiviral agents is not trivial as viral replication is intricately linked with the host cell that any antiviral drug that interferes even to a lesser extent with host cell factors may be toxic to the host depending on the duration and dosage used. Most antiviral drugs interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis or regulation. Such drugs generally are nucleic acid analogues that interfere with RNA and DNA production. Other mechanisms of action include interference with viral cell binding or interruption of virus uncoating. Some viruses contain unique metabolic pathways that serve as a target of drug therapy.

Take the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for example. The SARS-CoV-2 genome encodes approximately 25 proteins that are needed by the virus to infect humans and to replicate. Among these are the notorious spike (S) protein, which recognizes human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the initial stage of infection; two proteases, which cleave viral and human proteins; the RNA polymerase, which synthesizes viral RNA; and the RNA-cleaving endoribonuclease. Finding drugs that can bind to the viral proteins and stop them from working is a logical way forward and the priority of many research laboratories.

Viral diseases represent a real challenge for modern medicine with the recent emergence of new viral threats worldwide such as Ebola, Avian Influenza, MERS, HIV/AIDS, SARS, and now SARS-CoV-2. Reliable sourcing of antiviral compounds remains crucial to support the effective research and development of new preventive and therapeutic cures and regimens to treat infectious diseases.
Zidovudine 30516-87-1
Emtricitabine 143491-57-0
Acyclovir 59277-89-3
Ritonavir 155213-67-5
Lamivudine 134678-17-4
Ribavirin 36791-04-5
Abacavir Sulfate 188062-50-2
Saquinavir 127779-20-8
Stavudine 3056-17-5
Efavirenz 154598-52-4
Nevirapine 129618-40-2
Lopinavir 192725-17-0
Didanosine 69655-05-6
Etravirine 269055-15-4
Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate 202138-50-9
Ganciclovir 82410-32-0
Boceprevir 394730-60-0
Amprenavir 161814-49-9
Amantadine 768-94-5
Saquinavir Mesylate 149845-06-7
Telaprevir 402957-28-2
Rilpivirine 500287-72-9
Zanamivir 139110-80-8
Maraviroc 376348-65-1
Idoxuridine 54-42-2
Sofosbuvir 1190307-88-0
Valganciclovir Hydrochloride 175865-59-5
Valacyclovir Hydrochloride 124832-27-5
Oseltamivir Phosphate 204255-11-8
Ombitasvir 1258226-87-7
Daclatasvir 1009119-64-5
Atazanavir 198904-31-3
Indinavir Sulfate 157810-81-6
Atazanavir Sulfate 229975-97-7
Adefovir 106941-25-7
Nelfinavir Mesylate 159989-65-8
Famciclovir 104227-87-4
Indinavir 150378-17-9
Raltegravir 518048-05-0
Elvitegravir 697761-98-1
Abacavir 136470-78-5
Telbivudine 3424-98-4
Amantadine Hydrochloride 665-66-7
Tipranavir 174484-41-4
Foscarnet Sodium 34156-56-4

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